WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE ZAMBIAN MUSIC INDUSTRY?

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Hello everyone, long time no blogging, but izzz okay I am back for now. Thanks to all of you that have kicked me out of the comfort zone. It is because of you that I keep going. Recently I have been carried away by lots of things. Some of you already know that I got elected union president for my university so you can only imagine the kind of pressure I am going through. I think after this post, I still have two more posts before we wrap up this year.

So this week twitter has been blazing with enormous pettiness, but thankfully not entirely. There has been attempts to air solutions to the Zambian Music Industry stagnation. I think stagnation for lack of a better description. Also there was extreme bashing of the industry, So I decided to do a post yet again about the Zed music industry.

I guess everything stemmed from the FILL UP FNB STADIUM tour by Cassper Nyovest where 68000 people in South Africa showed up for a concert not to see Chris Brown. Cassper is getting a reputation for doing this sort of thing, as he previously filled the dome. He was congratulated by so many of his fellow musicians who do admit the 28 year old has really shifted the level to greater heights.

So the aftermath of this historical occurrence among some Zambians on twitter was how it is that none of our artists ever came close to such a milestone, how it is that we are lagging behind compared to other African countries. First of all, I wish to state that comparison is the thief of joy. We can’t suddenly wish our own artists or demand them to do something that took years to build. Because Cassper filled a stadium doesn’t necessarily mean Chefy or Jay Rox should accept a challenge.  Secondly, Cassper should not set the trend for our artists.

What I think we should do is accept that our industry is an infant for now and if we keep comparing it to The Nigerian or South African ones, we may only end up disrespecting the very artists that make us dance every Friday night at the Lounge. We can’t overlook the potential that has recently resurfaced in Zambia. Have you seen Dizmo? Lol! The future is bright. We should give it more time and the system will resolve itself. I truly doubt if anything will suddenly change, maybe two or more generations to come and we could be there. I am the most optimistic person so trust me, i am only being realistic.

You know I wish I could take my own advice, but it is kinda hard because  every  day  I am on YouTube, I see a new immaculate video from maybe Diamond, Run Town or Tekno and involuntarily I am craving and demanding  to see a similar video by a Zambian.  I guess it is what fuels our anger when we wish our own people could be that good and they kind of aren’t. I guess the frustration isn’t entirely aimed at pissing off our musicians, but to actually push them to do better. It is so upsetting to see many African musicians making global musical history and none of ours is on the  list. We can justify our comparison as some level of nationalism.

So what is really wrong with our industry?

  1. THE INDUSTRY LACKS A FINANCIAL MUSCLE. Trust me, if a tremendous amount of money was injected into it, a huge difference would be made. Musicians don’t have enough money to do incredible videos. They lack sponsors and most importantly themselves are not wiling to invest their own money into the craft. If they keep waiting for sponsors, they will wait forever.  Anyway, what they do isn’t considered very valuable and so how do we expect them to make a living or rather be competitive? Very few people are willing to pay for albums or pay for shows over K100.
  2. POOR PLANNING, MARKETING. How many management agencies do we have in Zambia? Do we have real music promoters with actual contacts to the outside world? Anyway, before we go to the outside world, how well do our artists market themselves locally? Some artists are only famous in Lusaka. There are some songs that you will only hear in Mufulira and nowhere else in Zambia. Most artists just release a song and hope it blows, not realizing investing in marketing would make such a difference. This is why so many good songs remain underground.  After the song is done, the best most do is throw it on on one of the music blogs hoping, accidentally, it will be downloaded by thousands and become a country hit. what are the odds? Artists also fail to brand themselves. How will your fans respect you when they dress better than you? How will they respect you when you drink from the same spot as them? Artists fail to create themselves into a symbol of public admiration.
  3. THE INDUSTRY ISN’T AN OPEN MARKET. In one way or the other, I feel our industry is regulated, not by the government, but by the players themselves. Radio DJs already know whose new song they will play for free. What about the population of poor underground artists? If our industry was truly a free market, so many artists would have made it to the top and replaced the Mugabes. For years now, the top artists continue to be the same. Is it because they are truly the best? How many new artists have come through in the US since 2010?  Look at how many new Nigerian artists we have seen of late. Is P.Square still running the game? There is clearly no room for rotation here because the system is regulated.
  4. INCONSISTENCY: Lots of new artists lack a level of consistency. They really need to learn something from Roberto, Slap D, Chef 187, Ruff Kaida, Macky 2 etc. Its like some artists were born to be one hit wonders and exit. Like they just wanted to taste a bit of fame and that was it. They fail to keep up with the trends, they fail to study their fans and some times lack discipline and are not humble enough to learn from legends. Of course nothing is way to easy, but if others can manage to be consistent, so can they.
  5. ORIGINALITY: How could it miss the list? Zambians sound like everyone else not Zambian these days. I do not know how and why we have failed to brand Zambian music and sell it to the world. There are a number of hit songs we have, and for respect of the singers, I won’t name them ,whose concept was stolen from foreign songs. A lot of songs done after 2010 are devoid of that great Zambian substantial touch.
  6. CREATIVITY: Truly, we can not overlook the enhancement in the creativity, but some of us are just hard to please with the little exposure we have as music connoisseurs. Poor lyrics, poor beats, production. I think we need a music school. People need a level of education, to help them analyse, focus and predict situations. I believe when you spend more time on something, you create quality. Some people can create a masterpiece in a night, but not everyone. I personally see a lot of intellect in Pompi’s lyrics. I see great production from KB, Magg 44, T. Sean, Shenky, Jazzy boy, Stash, Magician, Ricore and Reverb. They can still go a little further to change the game, by introducing a newly defined  level of Zambian music production. Evolution is everything. The idea of stealing beats, concepts and songs should remain in 2017. Also with creativity, everything is possible. You don’t need to feature Wizkid to sell. I mean look at Roberto.
  7. CAVALIER ATTITUDE OF FANS: If it comes to being indifferent to something, Zambians win. Zambian fans don’t give a sh*t. You really believe with this current attitude anyone in the world stands a chance to fill a stadium? You can’t blame them anyway for not finding music valuable. I mean they are loyal to politics and football. Only H.E Mr Edgar Lungu and Chipolopolo fill the stadium. This means if music is well marketed, things could change.
  8. LACK OF GOVERNMENT POLICY. I think the government should enforce some play local only laws.
  9. DEMOGRAPHICS: How do you expect a million views on a Zambian video when only a minute percentage of the population have access to the internet? I can just imagine how many views would be on YouTube had it not been for the Zambians in the diaspora. How do you expect people to buy a ticket/album for K100, when they live under the poverty line? How do you expect to make money off a population that don’t appreciate your craft?

I still believe Zambia has done good so far, just that because other industries are moving at a faster pace, we tend to think we not doing enough.Any way this just a subjective perspective, everyone is entitled to their own opinion really.

 

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Zambian Twitter- The Evolution

 

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The last couple of years to 2010 saw an escalation in internet accessibility and consequently a rapid increase in the number of Facebook sign ups. This was a trend common among so many youths especially those in high school and college. However, the twitter field was more less a desert. Enthusiasm levels were not so high for sign-ups.

There was a very minimal number of Zambians on twitter. The majority of these were in the diaspora and had benefited from early exposure to the social network because of the countries they lived in like the US and the UK. Many locals had not heard about twitter and even a few of those who signed up wished it came with a manual.

However, the population has come to grow. The arrival of the Blackberry Smart Phone saw more people sign up because the smart phone allowed them to use the app which proved more convenient and easier to use than the web version.  As the smartphone became more and more affordable more people signed up. With an affordable data plan, the blackberry was convenient for the most urban users.

In no time was some news of some Zambian users attaining verification. Crisis Mr Swagger, a Zambian rapper was the first to announce an official verification. More Zambians, musicians mostly, followed after him in obtaining verified accounts.

Zambians were also beginning to get together to discuss issues. Insaka became a popular Zambian twitter platform of discussion. Every evening, Zambians on twitter would hold discussions under the hashtag INSAKA.

By the years, Insaka lost popularity as people discovered other ways to utilise their twitter. South African twitter has been known to be so open where Sex is discussed openly and freely by users and this spread to a few young Zambians. A lot of female users claimed to be feminists suddenly and many political commentators sprung up.  Pan-African traits of Zimbabwean twitter also spread to the Zambian side.

Currently is an account called Zed Curate where each week, a new Zambian shares with other Zambians their experiences and directs topics for Zambians to discuss. Politics, the economy and social life are discussed mainly.

Of late, myriads have crossed over from Facebook. It is possible to hear stories of users who left Facebook for twitter. Some think it is all because the new audience is more mature, but Chansa Kapapula, a prominent blogger and Zambian twitter pioneer thinks people are just choosing to embrace a new social network.

Many youths have used twitter to raise awareness of social and political irregularities. Disliked politicians are usually bashed on the platform and some view this as a form of entertainment. But not only politicians are humiliated, in an environment with self-imposed, Grammar ‘correctors’, fashion police, everything is possible.

Zambian twitter remains an interesting community to be a part of.

 

NB: You can Interact with me on twitter here

WHAT IS ZAMBIANS CONNECT? 

On January 23rd,  I got to host Zambians connect. Zambians connect? Most of you should wonder. Well I was in the same position last year, only in my case I was left guessing. 

Was it a T.V show for Zambians in the US?  Well  at least that’s how the people tweeting about it made it seem from my perspective. Was it an event where Zambians abroad got to meet and greet? Well with patience I did find out. 

Zambians Connect or Zed Connect is a platform created by visionary Zambians who sought a platform to allow fellow Zambians to share ideas, express their views and showcase a glimpse of their lifestyles.

So technically, Zambians Connect is an account on Snapchat. I understand not many Zambians are on Snapchat,  so Snapchat is an app that allows you to share  videos and pictures from your camera. It is more addictive than my poor description of it. 

Similar to Curate Zed which most Zambians on twitter are familiar with, Zed connect has a host who answers questions or directs topics for discussion only the duration is a day for the Zed connect host and you get to see them speak in a video. 

What do I think of Zambians connect? 

1) It is so much fun. Some people have such contagious humour they brighten your day as they host. My friend, Margaret Mwanza is now a famous host. 🙂
2) It makes it easy for us who pay close attention to Zambian trends to analyse what direction modern Zambians are taking generally and what position they hold on national to global matters. 

3) It is inspiring. Seeing a host that is keen on success is an impetus for your hustle. 

What have I observed

Without a data census it is obvious that the most active Zambian users of snapchat are abroad. You can actually tell from the hosts. “Hey I am your new host my name is ……. and I live in the UK, US”. The most prominent reason as to why local users are not so active is because internet is  ridiculously expensive back home. You know the bundle life huh?  💪😬

The other reason I think is Snapchat isn’t of much interest to most people. Personally, I was on snapchat for more than a year and was unbothered  to add any friends. People are more enthusiastic about Facebook and recently twitter. 

The other observation is the prevalent attitude of Zambians being mean on social media. Most hosts complain of people ‘hating’ on their hosting (I am glad to not have encountered any incident during my hosting). I am not one to judge people, but I think we should put an end to laughing at some hosts’ accents. Zambia is not an indigenous English speaking country in the first place. Also when one does good, we need to appreciate. If one is wrong,  let us not turn them into a laughing stock and pretend we want them to host again so we can laugh,again.

The other thing I have noticed is hosts are not down to earth or simply real at times. It is imperative to be yourself. That’s the advise I got from one of the admins prior to my hosting. I enjoyed the recent hosting from the brother in Malaysia. He was so uninhibited. From speaking to singing to rapping,  he was himself. 

Some hosts are scared of speaking vernacular like they are still at a primary private school. Be proud of our mother tongues. I am telling you it is a mental prison to accept a language of another country at the expense of your own. Speaking good English is not a measure of intelligence. Be a Proud Zambian and emancipate yourself. 

Zambians connect is not about ‘flexing’. Flexing right? Well for us who don’t follow urban slang, I meant to say showing off. Personally I feel hosts should show us more of what is in their head than what they assume is on their bank accounts. 

Does Zambians connect need some rules? 

Definitely. With more than 20 000 and counting zambians following the account, it is important that hosts mind what they share. Talking of age restriction, the instagram page has a rating of 18+, but young users still have access.

How influential is Zed connect? 

 To a certain level I feel it is. I mean we now have Zambian girls and Zambians UK.Next we will have Zambians US or Zambians in Lusaka? That just shows how much of a trend setter it is .The hosts of the subsidiaries also follow the same procedures as the founding body. 

Also many people are so glued to Zed connect like it is game of thrones. I am sure some people know who the first host was up to the current one without having to check the Instagram Zed connect ‘Hall of Fame’. 😀

People are always tweeting about a host every day and when you do not know what ZC is, you get puzzled. So you can see how it has become a part of people. 

What do I think of Zambian girls? 

So Zambian girls is actually a very good platform too. Not just for us guys to see beautiful girls,  the girls are beautiful and we like that😍, but it is inspiring to see women with purpose. Nothing inspires me more or is more attractive than a focussed woman. So we are looking forward to seeing more educated ladies who we will one day work with to transform our third world country. 

How do I host?

If you are already on instagram, search for Zambians connect and message the admins who will present you available dates. On the day they will give you the password and id and voila,you are the host. 

If you are on snapchat Search for zambiansconnect on snapchat to follow the stories. 

Thanks so much for reading and also feel free to interact with me on my personal snapchat: aquila.ngonga 

 

SONG REVIEW: MIXXY’S PA EASY ft AFUNIKA

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Micaiah Ng’onga ‘Mixxy‘ is a third year Survey major student at the Copperbelt University. He is one of the Zambian upcoming artists on fire. He  has  done  a  couple of  other  songs  that  have  received  airplay on  some radio stations  and  clubs in  Lusaka. He has worked with Royal Prince and Mari fro­m  Cabin records. On  this  new  jam, he  features the king of New Version of Kalindula, Afunika.

Pa easy is a song that reminds us of how speed kills. Mixxy is advising us to take it easy because the consequences of speed is crushing.

The  proverbial being that  ‘life  ain’t  no  crystal stair‘ limits the shocks of  the  results  of  shortcuts taken  to succeed. Many people  take  shortcuts to  improve  their  lives  or  decide  to  create   a  dangerous or risky definition of  pleasure.

These  days  young  girls and boys tend  to  become  regular club partakers  which  is  really cool if  they  think  about  it, but  the  thing  is  they  have  yet  to  go  to  university,  but they  are  exposing  themselves  to wrong  people and  creating  a  wrong  impression as  they  become  alcoholics at  a  tender  age. They  begin  to engage  in  adult  activities and  as  Afunika sings in  the  chorus, Ichalo ichi Chilalya  (The  world eats), a bemba saying symbolic of   death. There is HIV and other consequences through such behavior which again results to death. Mixxy urges young youths to wake up and take  it  easy because everything  has  it’s  own  time.

To terminate suffering or because of  envy of people acquiring possession, people  seek  shortcuts to  get  money  or  get  rich. People  tend   to  take  part  in  illegal activities like  corruption and  theft. Eventually the  crimes  catch up  with you and  you  are  put  behind bars. Before this  happens to  you, Mixxy reminds  you  to  take  it  easy.

There  are  plenty  other  situations or  examples where  we  can’t  take  it  easy  and   so   whenever  we  try  to rush let  us  be  able to  think  of  the  consequences and  eventually refrain from  such an  action.

You  can  have  a  listen/download of  PA  EASY HERE. Please  remember to support MIXXY and share. You  can  also drop your  views of  the  song  in  the  comment box  below.

A Family Hustle: The Second Generation (EPISODE 6)

EPISODE 6 (JULY) 

6 YEARS LATER… 
PETER

“And the award for best student goes to…”

Peter’s heart was racing as Mr Mwape the Head Teacher was announcing the top student. He had worked so hard the last three years of high school and was really looking forward to getting the prize. Not that he wasn’t confident, it was just so he knew he faced stiff competition from Rachael.

Him and Rachael had grown so fond of each other since their eleventh grade. Peter had helped her realise her potential, before which she was more interested in boys and parties than school and her future. She was moved by Peter’s wisdom, intelligence and especially his family background. Today they were going to graduate from high school as Head boy and girl with one of them getting the award for Best Student of the class.

“Peter ” announced Mr Mwape. “The award goes to Peter Hamooya”

Peter let out a sigh of relief while the audience went boisterous. As he stood up, Rachael embraced him. 

“Congratulations Peter you deserve it” she said with a smile

As he walked to the platform, he wished his Father and Mother could see this moment. He wanted to break down, but he was thankful Claire, his Aunt, uncles and cousins had attended.

He was so keen on prayer, he was so religious. His Aunt had introduced him to her church in riverside and ever since he had had a talk with the pastor, he had seen life differently. He was glad to find something that neutralised his painful past. He always felt more comfortable in the house of God than any other place. He was full of wisdom at a young age.

The Guest of honour gave a speech about how the students were now the new adults. He spoke of independence and careers and bills. Peter was just thankful God had brought him this far. When his turn to give a speech arrived, he was already ready for the moment that when he was done no one had not raised to their feet. This was one of the special days of his life. After all his family had been through, he surely deserved to smile today.

After the ceremony Rachael called him by the side. 

“What are we” She asked him seriously

“I don’t follow” he replied

“Peter don’t act like you have no idea what i am talking about” she shot

“I am serious, I don’t know” he defended himself

His innocence was so overwhelming. 

“Oh, I now get it” he realised. “I am sorry Rachael, now is not a good time for me. I do not feel I am ready”

He was not ready to date the most beautiful, hardworking and intelligent girl in school and he felt no regret at the moment because that is what he really thought was the right thing to do. His pastor had always said “follow your heart”. He was not just sure if he had really followed it this time. Had he followed his mind? Time would tell.

A Family Hustle: The Second Generation (EPISODE 5)

EPISODE FIVE (MAY)

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6 YEARS LATER…

GARY

“Let us all toast to umupondo wesu, 1 Gee” said Bazzah

Every one immediately responded to their boss’s request (command) not because they were just scared of him, but also because their mate Gary really was a man to adore. They had just come from one of the hardest missions they had had to undergo along Ndola-Kapiri Road. Someone had tipped off the police and the gun fight was almost lost until Gary had appeared from almost nowhere and single handedly shot dead all ten policemen.

Some among the group said he had simply mastered the art of shooting, but some had confessed how they saw him shot, but never to drop a pint of blood. None of that mattered now, they had successfully gotten away with millions worth of copper. They were in money again, all they had to do was lay low for a few weeks.

Gary recalled the first time he had gone on a robbery and realized how far he had come. He was only 15 then. He was indifferent, he had no remorse, he hated life, but most of all, he hated his father. He had left his Aunt’s house eventually to join Bazzah and his crew. Bazzah was as rough as a Jerah leader came, but always treated Gary like his son. He had taught him to denounce his fear.

Gary excused himself from the party and went to his room. Local music filled his room from the radio. DJ Nano even played his favorite song by Macky 2, but deep inside, he felt something was missing. His mind was boiling with fear while his heart raced. He had taken a life before, but today had felt different. For the first time as a robber, he felt remorseful. He looked at his phone and looked at his little sister on his wallpaper. At least he could sleep.

In his sleep, he dreamed of little children asking him why he had stolen their fathers from him.A while later, he woke up to the sound of the news. The Inspector general of Zambia police was speaking.

“We shall not let those scumbags get away with this, we can never let our men’s blood drip in vain. My men are doing everything they can and a reward of K100000 will be given for any information leading to the apprehension of these villains”

For the first time, Gary missed his old man. He had a feeling they might not get away with this robbery this time around.He heard boots approaching his door and quickly he turned off the radio. It was the commander.

“boss”, Gary shot up

“mwaiche, the heat is too much so we are going to Kibaki in Congo, only you will come with me, the rest will go back to kitwe, we don’t need to arouse suspicion” Bazzah said in his deep voice. “The Cargo will be here for a while”

Bazzah looked closely at Gary.

“Mwaiche, what’s wrong? you look low”

“Nothing boss, just tired”

“Keep it together young man, imagine everything we will do when we sell the cargo. Don’t you want to buy that BMW?”

Gary was getting tired of this talk. It was utter bullshit to him now. He knew they could keep doing this over and over again. He wanted to be free of Bazzah, but Bazzah had a grip on his life.He continued to think about the policemen.

TBC…

 

 

A VIVA MOMENT

A Police UNZA teargas
Before I developed the interest of studying abroad, I always wanted to study at the University of Zambia. I guess I really loved the thought of moving to Lusaka and also because my coolest cousin went there. I really had this utopian view of the institution.

So after I completed Grade school, I applied and was accepted to begin my freshman year in 2012, but I did not go as I had to do A. Level. After A. Level, I wasn’t going abroad as planned so I had to go back to the institution I abandoned.
With no enthusiasm, me and my cousin got on a bus to Chelston to begin my registration. To be clear, I was the one devoid of enthusiasm. When we got off, I wasn’t going over the bridge. You see because of my fear of heights, it took me almost three months to cross Great East road on the bridge. It had to take female coaxing to get some inspiration when I finally used the Bridge.Thanks  Beauty, wherever you are. Lol

It wasn’t long before the registration process began to agitate me. Nothing pisses me off more than slow processes, slow people, slow cars, and yes slow internet (which also can dictate my mood) and so when I joined a really long train of a queue with tortoise speed just to do my medicals, I knew I was going to learn patience the hard way.

It was really cool though, seeing senior students ready to help out in the registration. I learnt later that it was only a campaign strategy for students wishing to be members of UNZASU, but I could care less as long as I got the needed assistance right? I realize now that I have never taken that many passport sized photos in my life than I did at UNZA.

A few weeks later,I finally got a room at the Vet Hostels and in a week my Laptop was stolen. I thought orientation was done until this loser stole from me. It was such a horrible morning when I woke up, I was beginning to hate the school. I don’t think I will forget that morning.

Thanks to the academics, the school remained interesting. I never missed lectures. Ironically, we all enjoyed Dr Chigunta’s cockiness and because of some of his comments and statements, development Studies was never a dull moment at all. I will say Dr Lemba’s class was a bit boring, but I soon grasped the theory and realized how eminent the course was. Answering a question in LT1 that only you had the answer to was a special feeling in Dr Lemba’s class. He could always ask what your name was and glady I had my moment too .

Of course, I enjoyed Economics with Mr. Banda. If you are so good at following instructions, you would never have a problem with the man. I forget the name of the Indian woman that lectured me in math, but all I remember is she was too fast, and thankfully as I had done A. level, her speed matched my timing.

At this point, you may be wondering if all I have said has anything to do with a Viva, but forgive me for telling a story you are enjoying so far. 🙂
I planned to be UNZASU president in my third year. One of my plans was to eradicate Vivas and still get results. Now, I know most of you love Vivas and are wondering what kind of leader would not want to go to war, but not everyone is keen on that and I believe in change. I seriously hated riots. Further, I wasn’t on BC so I could literally be fighting for nothing.

I think the first attempt came one day when I was leaving LT1. Simple colonel or so they called him and his team had something scribbled on paper and were trying to entice other students into a protest. I later went to the Library were they also came through. All I heard were drums being beaten shortly followed by a sort of alarm I was hearing for the first time. I realized it meant we vacated the Library as everyone else was leaving. Orientation takes a long time yeah?

Later in the evening, I escorted a friend back to her boarding house and for the first time, I saw students throwing stones in the great east road almost causing what could have been a fatal accident given the average speed cars move by in that road. I was so happy that Viva wasn’t going to happen that day.
One evening, must have been a friday i think, we had an extra or make up class for ECN 1225. Mr Banda began to speak on the phone and then told us Ruins had just been peppered with tear gas. He quickly left the class as we all followed suit to wherever we thought was safe.

I quickly rushed back to my room. The hostels were safe for most of the hours, but the Viva was getting intense as our view of new res presented us a burning female hostel. Apparently, the fire had been caused by a canister that was shot by the cops and the fire was slowly spreading. I don’t know if that hostel has now been fully rehabilitated as i left people working on it.

The viva kept degenerating as  now I could see the blue land cruiser with a light on top. I was left in my room with my room mate’s girl friend. After a few hours of the cops not reaching the vet hostels, they finally showed up and two rooms away i could hear the cops fighting their way into a room that some students had run into. I quickly switched off the light, told my friend’s girl to get under his bed and I got under mine. No sooner had we done this, than I debuted in the world of tear gas. I was rubbing my face with my wet towel, ferociously. A bucket of water was my well. I have never been so nervous in my life. I was so scared i could be another innocent statistic. I had heard of stories of how brutal the police would be with anyone who seemed to be a student during these critical times.Thankfully, the heavy boots and Nyanja could not be heard outside any more. The cops were gone. I had survived a viva moment.

I really do miss the campus but for the vivas, I hope it can be reopened soon enough for all the students to progress in time. I would really love to see education run as smooth as possible in Zambian universities, it is not every decade that we need riots.

Thanks for reading and leave a comment to share your own Viva moment if you went to UNZA, CBU or any other rioting university.
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